Virtually every electronic device manufactured today contains components known as capacitors, which temporarily store an electrical charge; trillions of capacitors are manufactured each year. Plaintiffs allege that manufacturers of aluminum, tantalum, and film capacitors agreed to raise, fix, and stabilize capacitor prices. Price-fixing in this multibillion-dollar market allegedly began as far back as 2002 and continued for over a decade. Dr. Singer provided expert testimony on the scope and scale of the anticompetitive harm arising from the alleged price fixing, including in the context of a concurrent expert witness proceeding (“hot tub”) in September 2019. Dr. Caves supervised and directed economic analysis and modeling establishing the pervasiveness of the price fixing, which spanned hundreds of thousands of capacitor types of various size, capacitance, and materials, manufactured by over 20 different defendants. To date, settlements totaling $439.6 million have been reached with various defendants.